When four friends find out all they have pursued in life was their careers, age becomes the only substance of caution. But at 30 it almost too difficult to change habits.
This short film showcases the lifestyle of a typical Lagosian\'s 24 hours. The usual hustling and bustling that accompanies living in the little state that we call home.
The king is faced with a situation beyond the ordinary eye and he must consult with the elders both living and those gone ahead of him to find a solution.
IJE: The Journey tells the story of two sisters with unbreakable bonds of loyalty and the power of the human spirit. When Anya, the eldest of the two, vows to chase her dreams of glamour in the Hollywood Hills, her younger sister - Chioma - warns of her of the dark side of the American Dream. Now, years later, and in a world away from the life she knew, Anya is charged with the murder of three men, one of them her powerful husband. Chioma travels to her sister\'s side to battle not only a flawed justice system with the aid of a young and disillusioned attorney, but the very notion of \"truth\" as the cultural values of two worlds collide. Weaving a melodic and beautiful score through rich visuals in Los Angeles and flashbacks on location in Nigeria, IJE captures the viewer from the very first scene and delivers a powerful message through the moving conclusion.
A married Nigerian couple, Joyce and Paul Unanga, living undocumented in the United States, has been ordered to leave the country by U.S. immigration. They decide that they will leave, but only after Joyce, who is five months pregnant, delivers her baby in the United States to guarantee automatic U.S. citizenship for their child. Thusly ignoring the deportation order, the couple goes into hiding. When Paul is caught and deported, leaving Joyce to fend for herself, she struggles on her own to survive. Bureaucracy keeps getting in the way of Joyce achieving her goal and just as she is about to give up hope, she meets Susan, a married freelance writer who offers to help in the form of safe, free accommodation until the baby is born. With the help of her newfound friend, Joyce sets out to make the â€˜American Dreamâ€™ come true for her unborn child.
They must together fight for what they believe in or forever lose their hope of a happy life together
Tells the story of a young Nigerian student in Nigeria, who dreams of becoming a righteous leader but he soon finds that the journey is further than imagined
Tells the true story of Sade, a young Nigerian medical student in Kiev, who dreams of becoming a singer. She finds a way to overcome her many challenges, with perseverance, confidence in her own talent and the love and support of Denis, the sincere and good natured Ukrainian.
Akin and Mary meet for the first time at an airport where they accidentally bump into each other and mistakenly swap their identical phones. This leads to a destination mix up after they receive one another\'s text regarding a travel destination. Consequently, Akin ends up travelling to where Mary is supposed to go and vice versa. Neither knows about the swap until they have reached their opposite destinations and \"the phone\" stops ringing (In Mary\'s case) and \"Won\'t stop ringing\" (In Akins\'s case). As a result of the phone swap, they agree to help carry out each other\'s missions, armed with the information and data on each other\'s phone. But it\'s not as easy as they both think as new obstacles and complications rise at every turn as they both struggle to adapt to their alien environment and situation. Mary has to walk in Akins shoes and represent him in a company meeting while Akin has to represent Mary in her the family meeting. This they do with hilarious results.
Riva is an operator, a man with charm and ambition in equal measure. Kinshasa is an inviting place. With petrol in short supply in DRC\'s capital, he and his sidekick pursue a plot to get hold of a secret cache - barrels of fuel they can sell for a huge profit. Of course they\'re not the only ones who want the stuff. Cesar is a ruthless, sharply dressed foreigner thriving in Kinshasa\'s lawless streets.A female military officer joins the fray. Even the church will betray its tenets for a piece of the action. But Riva\'s main nemesis is Azor, a crime boss in the classic style: big, decadent and brutal. He\'s not a man to mess with, but his girlfriend, Nora, may just be the most seductive woman in all of DRC. Riva catches sight of her dancing at a nightclub and it\'s not long before Nora matches the fuel cache as a coveted object of his lust.
Flower Girl is a romantic comedy in which a shy florist teams up with a movie star to push her lifelong boyfriend into proposing marriage.Kemi (26) works in her parentsâ€™ flower shop and she dreams of becoming one of the happy married couples she sees every day. Her long time lawyer boyfriend Umar (28) has promised to marry her when he gets a promotion, but she is growing increasingly impatient. Still living with her embarrassing parents, she spends her nights in her room, planning the wedding she hopes to have some day.Then comes the day she has been waiting for. Umar has got the promotion! However, when she arrives expecting a big proposal, he breaks up with her instead. Devastated, she goes on a delivery and unable to see where she is going through the tears of grief, she is hit by a car. The driver turns out to be Tunde Kulani, the famous Nollywood movie star.While Tunde tends to her wounds, she breaks down and confesses her dilemma. Tunde offers to help get Umar to propose. They devise a plan. They will pretend to be a couple to make Umar jealous and get him back proposing on his knees.
The past never dies. Akan finds out that one phone call is about to shatter his serene lifestyle in the United States. Suddenly the past meets the future as he has to relive the violent experiences of his Nigerian past. His membership in a brotherhood is exposed as well as the reason he joins them and the reason he might be running. Inspired by true events, Grey Focus shocks the viewer with its blatant exposure of an ever increasing phenomenon in Nigerian University campuses
This suspense drama series is an intriguing tale of family, friendship, betrayal, conspiracy, love and vengeance. Our story follows the lives of several characters all connected to the island and its extremities in one way or another. The wealthy BOWEN-COLE familyâ€™s unclear history and hedonistic son FEMI, the wealthy and arrogant BAKO and ADEMOLA families which appear untouchable and oppressive. The BALOGUNs, once at the apex of society, now suffer a sad plight as the bread winner of the family sits semi-comatose waiting to die, leaving them bitter and vengeful over old rivalries. SADE COKER, a beautiful and ambitious girl living a self-determined life, faces her greatest challenge when it comes to choosing between love and loyalty. SEGUN ALABA, smart and street savvy, taking his destiny into his own hands he vows to gain money, power and respect on the island by all means necessary. The show derives its essence from the real experiences of Nigerian high-society and its excessive culture. Expect celebrity cameos, real Lagos city venues, events and lifestyle, tentatively playing on the border between reality and fiction.
Inale is the beautiful daughter of the great King Oche,of the Idoma people in Idomaland, Nigeria. Her beloved Odeh must win the wrestling tournament to win her hand in marriage. The village gathers for the ceremony only to find a stranger in their midst, that challenges not only the tradition of the village but the strength of Odeh and Inale\'s true loveThe Movie also tells the story of two communities, their trials and tribulations to maintain a peaceful co-existence. The movie inale is a fictional expression of a traditional history that seeks to mirror the story of modern Nigeria with the challenges of communal tensions and conflicts. Inale is also the story of true love, the kind that has been told through the ages of time past and to the present.
Tijani, gets involved in a street fight in which a boy is hurt, convinced that Tijani needs discipline, Teema; his mum decides to take him to the Gambia to live with her sister.\\r\\nOn their arrival in Banjul, Tijani encounters what he considers to be a simple apparition- a boy smiling at him in a mirror and vanishing afterward. However, seeing the same boy in a crowded street market the next day sets in motion a chain of events that culminates in him getting lost. While the panic-stricken Teema struggles with the Police Force to find her son in an intriguing game of survival brinkmanship, Tijani is left alone in the company of the enigmatic MIRROR BOY who is only visible to him. As a bruising spiritual rite of passage, the Mirror Boy takes Tijani on a magical journey through the dark belly of the forest.
Brilliant Cancer specialist Dr. Michael Durant is emotionally troubled, wrestling with the traumatic loss of his 10 year old daughter from Cancer. Immersing himself in his work in the hospital, away from his wife who blames him for their childâ€™s death, he forms an unlikely bond with a sick, loving, but rambunctious seven year old boy Sam, the son of a rich Jewish couple who are major contributors to the Hospitalâ€™s Cancer Research Fund. Unfortunately, Samâ€™s health deteriorates drastically, and soon, he slips into a coma, with only a few days to live. Dr. Durant becomes desperate, willing to risk anything to save the childâ€™s life. A surreptitious Nigerian Nurse convinces him to seek the help of Dr. Bello, an uncertified Nigerian Doctor, known in the Brooklyn-African underground as a miracle worker. Dr. Bello, an introvert with a controversial past, secretly visits the child at night and administers a strange African potion, replete with incantations and by the next morning, miraculously, the child begins to recover, the Cancer speeding into remission.The Hospital Medical Board immediately orders an investigation and soon the secret is revealed and Dr. Durant is suspended. Dr. Bello is arrested and charged with medical malpractice. Dr. Durant soon falls into depression after his wife leaves him. Meanwhile, Dr. Bello has fallen critically ill in jail and can only be saved by the ingestion of the same potion that can only be found in the mysterious â€œGarden of Life,â€ nestled on the peak of Nigeriaâ€™s sky mountains.
The movie is based on a true New York story of a guy who got caught in a love triangle. He had his wife in Nigeria who was waiting to join him in the United States, at the same time keeping another relationship with another American girl. The relationship with the American lady has been on for a period of about three to four years. Fortunately for his wife and unfortunately for him, the wife won a Green Card Lottery and she decided to pay him a surprise visit on his birthday. Meanwhile the American, who is practically staying with him in his New York apartment was planning a big birthday for him on the same day and was going to use that opportunity to announce to him that she was carrying his baby. Few hours to the gig, the guy got a call which shows New York number. He picked it only to realize that his wife was the caller waiting for him to come and pick her at the JFK Airport.
Ties that Bind is a gripping movie that tells the story of Adobea, Buki and Theresa, three women from different walks of life bound together by a similar pain; the loss of a child. In a destined meeting in a small village in Kroboland, the women journey together to redemption, love, life and forgiveness as they renovate a dilapidated clinic for the villagers. Ties That Bind is an award-winning movie bringing together talent from Hollywood, Nollywood, and Gollywood.
A twenty-one year old adult, Tobi, bows to the dark side of gang pressure, and in a flash, a seemingly morally upright young man gets caught up in a web of violence, drugs, bloodshed, drugs, parental expectations, and conflicting voices in his head; and then a grave mistake occurs on the streets, which threatens his very existence. His brother, a handsome and outstanding lawyer is torn between loyalty to his dream firm, â€˜Lourdes & Myers;â€™ where he has now been employed and defending his brother on the other hand â€“ in a case where Tobiâ€™s life hangs in a balance. He must take a stand that would shake the proceedings to its very roots. The movie shines with a healthy blend of American and Nigerian cast. \\r\\n
When a young medical student, Susan (Maria Kumba Gomez) arrived the UK to study with her sister, Maggie (Chioma Chukwuka-Akpotha), she never, in her wildest imagination, believed she could ever fall in love with a white man, until she is introduced to a dashing young guy, Dermot (Oliver Joliffe), by her sisterâ€™s boyfriend, Kachi (John Dumelo).They began a sizzling romantic relationship, until events of the past came calling; can they withstand the turbulence of deep-seated anger caused by the fake dealings and scams from past experiences? The Past Came Calling addresses issues of advanced free fraud (419), inter-racial relationship, juvenile delinquency and the effects of divorce on a child among others
Successful Businessman Peter Popolampo is the ultimate alpha male. He is 40 years old, rich, and a staunch bachelor.Despite his motherï¿½s persistent attempt to find him a woman, Peter sticks to his rule of non-committal casual dates, freedom and controlling his life until a yearning to have a child arises.In his quest to find the woman who will take his money, have his child and disappear, Peter begins a roller coaster, contracted relationship with Abena Boateng, a crude but clever local girl who is anything but impressed with Peterï¿½s affluence.With a clear definitive contract outlining the doï¿½s and donï¿½ts of bearing Peterï¿½s Popolampoï¿½s child, these two opposites must exercise every ounce of will power not to kill each other until the child is born
A true life story retold as a magnificent epic movie. The movie ï¿½Adesuwaï¿½ centres on a monarch who goes as far as demeaning his throne, all because of a very beautiful woman; even though she has already being betrothed to marry another man. Princess Adesuwa, famed for her unrivalled beauty and known as the betrothed to the king and ruler of the powerful Benin Empire was then abducted. This is the enthralling story of Ogie Oboro in Benin, the story about the abduction and death of Princess Adesuwa. Lavishly filmed, and featuring remarkable visual effects, the movie takes us into the memorable past of the Benin Kingdom to bring a tale of lust, passion, and betrayal
Amina is an emotionally charged film about loss, love and redemption. It follows the tale of Amina (Omotola Jalade), who after a series of emotional turbulences, suffers a breakdown and ends up in a Mental Institution. It all started with an unplanned pregnancy at 16 which left Amina devastated, bewildered and in disarray. Unsure and vulnerable, she stumbles, falls and rises as a single mother but as more and more tragic incidences become a daily occurrence, her state of mind becomes worse. Trapped in a system and struggling to cope, even her loving boyfriend (Van Vicker) and childhood best friend (Alison Caroll) seem powerless to help her. Is she crazy or there are subconscious issues she does not want to address? Only one man, her doctor (Wil Johnson) can help Amina but he must convince his boss (Vincent Regan) that his unorthodox approach will work. The only problem is he must overcome his own demons before he can help Amina confront her tormented past and guide her to a future of hope and fame. This exciting and imaginative piece of work attempts to explore human tendencies to suppress painful memories
Aramotu, the eponymous character is a mother of two and a successful trader who regularly travels outside the village of Agesi to acquire goods that she sells in the marketplace. (Thus it is already clear that boundaries mean very little to her). She is married to a man; Akanmu who apparently cares for and loves her despite the taunts and jeers of his fellow men, women and family who believe that he is being cuckolded by Aramotu. He is called the wife while Aramotu is called the husband.Aramotu is also a woodcarver, a profession that is forbidden for women to practice. Aramotu secretly carves wood usually in the middle of the night and in private room separate from the one she shares with her husband. Aramotu is centred on her craving a gelede mask to be worn by her fellow artist friend, Gbegiro for the festival in which the gelede masquerades dance during the Efe night. Aramotu is shown to be an innovative artist, she carves two faces onto her mask as opposed to the regular one face. Because of her innovation, she is chosen to become a member of the elusive yet powerful Cult of the Spider, a women secret society that is supposedly dangerous.The men, spurred by the council of elders, have seized farmlands belonging to their wives so as to grow cash crops, such as banana and rubber, which they can sell to European traders. The women are distraught; Aramotu leads the women in a revolt against these self-serving ideas. Meanwhile, Aramotu husband grows frustrated with what he believes is his wife's lack of submission to his authority, he takes another wife (a woman that Aramotu provides shelter for in her home due to her running away from her own home
Based on true events; A set of everyday Nigerian travellers board the last Flamingo Airways flight scheduled to fly from Lagos to Abuja on a fateful Friday night in 2006. The plane cruises at 30,000 feet, tranquil and on schedule. But like a bolt out of the blue, through a mixture of human error, technical failure and sheer bad luck, the plane rapidly develops major difficulties that send it teetering on the brink of disaster. As the pilots fight with the controls of the stricken plane, a series of flashbacks unravel the twists, turns and leaps of fate that put each passenger on the fateful flight. Young lovers, an elderly couple, a corporate party, a sportsman on the threshold of greatness; all the passengers are caught up in the nightmare scenario and sense the final moments of their lives approach. All... except one! What does he know?
Family on fire is a story about greed and drug trade,this greed will turn all family members against one another
My life my damageâ€™ is the second part in Uche Jumboâ€™s Damage trilogy.
It tells the story of a young Nigerian medical student (Tonto Dikeh) working in a group home, her self-damage story of lost dreams and her romance with pills and drugs and how she destroyed herself by getting mixed up with the wrong crowd.
On a hot afternoon in Lagos City, Kamal, the relentless LASTMA official has the mirror of his van knocked off by and over-speeding Danfo bus. An irate Kamal follows the unapologetic danfo in hot pursuit, then... err, you cant be told what happens next, you have to see it. Lasgidi was directed by Amusan Tosin and produced by Emergein.
This is a movie based on an unsuccessful military coup (a phenomenon that dots Nigeriaâ€™s Political history) and the repercussions that trail all characters involved
Failed stock investor, EVIANO ESIRI (Justus Esiri), hires an Assassin (Eve Pearson), to take his life and make it look like a botched robbery so his family would live off his life insurance. As part of his elaborate plan, he organises an impromptu holiday for his wife, SANDRA (Kate Henshaw) and daughter, TRACY (Sarah Akokhia), to protect them from witnessing the assassination. With no love lost between Sandra and Tracy, neither wants the holiday! He insists. On the day, the birth-abandoned daughter of his wife, EFUA (Daphne Akatugba), shows up to request money they no longer have. His frustration turns into frenzy as he watches the clock tick towards the coming of the Assassin. Agreeing to give whatever cash they have left just to get his family out of the house would have been at the nick of time; Only two opportunist ROBBERS (David Nnaji and Uche Monye) turn up and would not leave or let anyone leave without getting the money they expect to find. The Robbers' hope very quickly degenerates into confused agitation as it becomes clear that Eviano has a death wish they would rather not satisfy. They must leave with nothing; or kill his family - if only to satisfy their brewing anger! Their reign of terror is however brought to an abrupt end with the entrance of the Assassin, JACQUELINE. Jacqueline is a psychotic university-drop-out-assassin, whose desire of becoming a psychotherapist can only be fulfilled on her victims. One hour is all her session would last. Within the hour she would take everyone through a grueling question and answer session; at the end of which everyone must die. She sets the timer. An ominous silence pervades the air. As the hour ticks away slowly, Eviano knows he must do everything to protect his family before the hour is up.
A child has just been born to king Adedoyin, while the naming ceremony is in progress, the leading clergy goes into a trance and proclaims that the baby will kill his father and marry his mother. While still trying to grapple with the situation, the traditional leader enters and proclaims the child as an unlucky messenger of the gods. The child is taken to Cameroon in order to avert the Prophecy. Twenty eighty years later, the child is also told the same prophecy Which makes him leave Cameroon for Nigeria in order to deter the prophecy but instead leads him to fulfill the prophecy. Noteworthy is that the movie takes an existentialist stance at the role of man in the fulfillment of his destiny and upholds the view that man, rather than the Supreme Force should be blamed for the consequence of his actions. It is the opinion of the director that if the baby had been allowed to live and grow up with his parents instead of living with foster parents in a foreign land probably, the prophecy would not have been fulfilled. Even if he killed and raped his mother or forced his mother, it would never have resulted in a marriage. The movie is instructive, educative, didactic, thrilling and topical.
UNGUARDED is a story about a man (played by Ramsey Nouah) who fell deeply in love with a girl (Esosa Edosonmwan), and was ready to take the next step only to find out that she had other plans which definitely didn't include him. She leaves him devastated and damaged; and his actions here on out are unforgivable until he meets someone special (played Uche Jombo).
A young groom and his best man get lost on a road trip, run into a young English doctor and it all goes .........
A Nigerian student studying abroad in the USA worries about life after graduation. She is not legally allowed to stay in the country but at the same time is determined not to return back to Nigeria.
TJ is a young man in his late twenties, the first draft of his book titled ZR-7 is long overdue for the publisher to review. He decides the entire draft will be recorded on a tape recorder and only his butler (Alphonso) is an actual witness, he begins to tell his story as the action comes alive.
The story is a classic life of boarding school adventures involving TJ with six of his friends (Rolly-D, Chiedu, UK, Tokunbo, Femi & James) while in JSS 1 (7th grade). The boys are initially shocked by all the hoops they have to jump in order to survive teachers, prefects, wicked seniors, dining hall food, thieves, cutting grass, washing toilets, puppy love and all the other regular experiences anyone in a public Nigerian boarding school would experience. But when TJ and the boys accidentally see a man and two female students in an uncompromising position, what they do with that information is not their only problem in school, but the resulting scandal would change their lives far beyond their wildest dreams...
Set in a bustling bird city on the edge of the majestic Victoria Falls, "Zambezia" is the story of Kai - a naÃ¯ve, but high-spirited young falcon who travels to the bird city of "Zambezia" where he discovers the truth about his origins and, in defending the city, learns how to be part of a community.
HOODRUSH is a musical thriller detailing the travails of two brothers closely bonded by their love for music; but deeply separated by their means for success. Shez and Tavier are two of a kind pursuing a Herculean dream of becoming music stars. But all they have is their amazing vocal talents, good looks, a crib in the ghetto and a menial job that could hardly pay for their clothing and feeding expenses. They soon realize they need more to achieve their dreams, and participating and hoping to win a credible talent hunt show comes as their only natural option. Being at the bottom of the societal grid, ghetto life's ugly fabric begins to wear on them and their eventual vulnerability puts them at the mercy of the high and mighty.
''Uhuru: Legend of the Windridersâ€ is an African adventure series set in the future. The Wind riders are a band of young rebels fighting against the dark forces of the Black Cauldron, a pseudo-religious sect bent on dominating the entire continent.
The Meeting is a romantic comedy set in Abuja, following the trials of Lagos-based corporate executive Makinde Esho who finds himself at the mercy of political patronage, bureaucratic red-tape and Cupidâ€™s arrow while he tries to secure a â€˜meetingâ€™ to get a government contract.
This expose on the devils of bureaucracy and official red-tapism is also a tender love story as well as an engaging romantic comedy, plus a sterling performance from Rita Dominic as a tightly wound, powerful personal assistant. The Meeting addresses an array of contemporary issues to identify with from love, to African time, to the trials of tackling officials and manoeuvring red tape.
'In iRedu' is a 12 min dramatic short film based on an excerpt from the classic Shakespeare play, Macbeth. The excerpt scene is Macbeth's meeting with the 3 witches of Fife. My interpretation is based in a fictional African country with 4 main tribes - the North, The South, the East and the West. Ogagun, a general from the western region meets up with the three witches in iRedu to find out what the future holds for him
It centers on Pastor Reuben, played by Akindele, who is a hundred percent about the church, leaving little room for his wife, Kemi, played by Chukwuka-Akpotha.rnWell, you know what they say about idle minds? or is it hands? Kemi, left idle by her Bible
Weaving together the lives of four people swept up in the turbulence of war. Olanna (Newton) and Kainene (Rose) are glamorous twins from a wealthy Nigerian family. Returning to a privileged city life in newly independent 1960's Nigeria after their expensive English education, the two women make very different choices. Olanna shocks her family by going to live with her lover, the â€œrevolutionary professorâ€ Odenigbo (Ejiofor) and his devoted houseboy Ugwu (Boyega) in the dusty university town of Nsukka; Kainene turns out to be a fiercely successful businesswoman when she takes over the family interests, and surprises herself when she falls in love with Richard (Mawle) an English writer. Preoccupied by their romantic entanglements, and a betrayal between the sisters, the events of their life loom larger than politics. However, they become caught up in the events of the Nigerian civil war, in which the lgbo people fought an impassioned struggle to establish Biafra an independent republic, ending in chilling violence which shocked the entire country and the world.
Dan Ansah Williams, high-flying entrepreneur, business mogul, polygamist and socialite is battling with cancer and has 6 weeks left on his time line. With the help of his long-time associate and legal representative he embarks on a mission to recall all his children back home, most of whom were born out of wedlock, being products of various illicit affairs .Danâ€™s last wish is to have his children all under one roof for 7 days. All known to each other and bonded by the fact that they share the same blood line. However, that reunion proves a little more than everyone bargained for as each child indeed returns with an agenda, setting the stage for the most hilarious and bizarre seven days of their lives. At the end they realize that there is just too much for too many.
The Film Unfair is a very topical and very down to earth film that captures the intricate fabric that runs through relationships, and how our lives are often connected in ways we may not yet see. Hard-working and hard-flirting real estate agent DAVID KAURA (Joseph Benjamin) prides himself as one who is true to himself; To him living should be easy and simple and nothing could be simpler than a relationship devoid of commitments. He is soon forced to reconsider heâ€™s principles when by happenstance he meets BATULU (Esther Audu). Now, he is ready to commit, only to find out she is soon to be married, and she is the god-daughter of his boss, DAN BABA (Jide Attah). In the mix is KEMI, Davidâ€™s colleague and bed-mate, who becomes lovelorn when she discovers David wants to commit to Batulu, and she sets out to make Davidâ€™s life miserable.
Meet the Adams women for the first time in what will be an exciting and unforgettable journey as we turn the chapters in the lives of these dynamic 21st century Ghanaian women.
In chapter 2 of Adams Apples, the day starts off rocky for Kukua Adams as she knocks heads with her new boss over her creative prowess; meanwhile Denu takes a firm decision to let go off the past which seem to rock Kukua's world even harder.
All hell breaks loose when the Adams sisters catch their mum and the unassuming teacher, Albert together at a hotel. A while later, Kukua back-to-business, is further heartbroken by Denu and his increasing closeness with the alluring Aseye.
Five different people dash marathon-style towards an emergency room, one after the other, to open up a new chapter in the busy lives of the Adams.
So what do you think of the Adams? This simple question Albert asks his daughter unfolds just a fraction of the wahala that continues in Chapter 5. Jennifer may seem softer from catching the love bug, but she's far from embracing her niece, nemesis and barrier to Gerald. So what ...